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One of the trickiest things about grammar has always been the verb tenses. English is very time-conscious. It's important when something happened, what the time relationship is between two events, and if the events happened or not. In the Verb Map below, you will see the tenses organized into a grid. (The T formation indicates the more commonly used forms.)
In the first row, the Simple tenses each use a single icon to indicate that one event took place. In the second row, there are two icons to indicate that there is a time relationship between two events. This is called the Real Duo because there are two events and they actually take place. (These are traditionally called the perfect tenses.)